HomeSurgery Articles15 Types of Surgeries - What Are They

15 Types of Surgeries – What Are They

Surgeries are a common treatment for many health conditions. Some surgeries can be performed by a doctor who is not a specialist in surgery, but with other procedures, it is best to see an experienced surgeon. There are many different types of surgeries, and they can be performed to treat a variety of medical conditions. Surgery is usually recommended when other treatments such as medications or physical therapy have not been effective. Before you decide to have surgery, it’s important to understand what types of surgeries are available and how each one can help you feel better.

Surgeries are a vital part of modern society. Surgeries are used to fix broken bones, cancerous tumors, etc. Today’s world has seen thousands of different surgeries that have been developed over the years. There are a lot of different types of surgeries, and each one is designed to treat a specific medical condition. The most common types of surgeries include:

Aesthetic surgery: This type of surgery is performed to improve the appearance of a body part. It can be done on any body part, but the most common ones are the face, breasts, and abdomen.

Reconstructive surgery: This type of surgery is performed to repair or improve the function of a body part. It can be done on any body part, but the most common ones are the face, hands, and feet.

Organ transplant: This type of surgery is performed to replace a damaged or diseased organ with a healthy one from a donor.

Cancer surgery: This type of surgery is performed to remove cancerous tumors.

List of 15 Common Types of Surgeries

Many people need surgery at some point in their lives. Surgery is often necessary to treat a health condition, such as a broken bone or heart disease, and sometimes it can be used to correct a birth defect. Surgery may also be done for cosmetic reasons, such as to reduce the size of an overlarge nose or other facial feature.

There are many different types of surgeries. Some, like hip replacement or heart bypass surgery, are very common. Others, like removal of an appendix or gallbladder, are less common but still important. To help you better understand the types of surgeries that are most commonly performed in the Australia and around the world, here’s a list of 15 common types of surgeries:

From plastic surgery to heart surgery, here is a list of types of surgery.

1. Cardiovascular Surgery

This is among the top performed surgeries and not only in AU but also around the world. This is due to high number of heart problems that people are facing nowadays. Cardiovascular surgery is a procedure that is done to repair or replace the heart, arteries or veins. The procedure can be done by open-heart surgery or minimally invasive surgery (MIS). It may be performed to repair damage caused by disease, congenital defects, or trauma.

It’s typically used to treat problems such as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, or clots in the arteries. The procedure may be performed to repair or replace diseased parts of your heart or blood vessels. The recovery time varies from patient to patient. Some patients go home the same day while others stay in the hospital for several days after surgery.

In general, there are two types of cardiovascular surgery: open-heart surgery and non-open-heart surgery. The procedure is usually done as an emergency when a patient experiences symptoms like chest pain or shortness of breath. The operation itself takes between two and three hours, but the patient will remain in the hospital for seven to ten days.

Patients who undergo cardiovascular surgery should be aware that there are risks associated with this type of procedure; however, these risks vary depending on what type of operation is being performed as well as how old the patient is at time of treatment – older patients tend to have more complications than younger patients.

The procedure will take place in an operating room and is typically under general anesthesia. It may take several hours to complete, depending on the extent of the surgery needed. The recovery period for cardiovascular surgery is generally longer than for other procedures performed on the body, as this type of procedure involves major internal organs. Post-operative care will focus on keeping your heart rate low and your blood pressure stable as you recover from surgery.

2. Orthopedics Surgery

Orthopedics surgery is the surgical treatment of bone, joint and muscle problems. It focuses on restoring mobility and relieving pain. The orthopedic surgeon is a specialist in musculoskeletal conditions affecting the bones, joints and muscles. Orthopedic surgeons are trained in diagnosis and treatment of injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. They may also specialize in areas such as trauma care or sports medicine.

The types of orthopedic surgery are:

Hip Replacement Surgery: A hip replacement is the surgical removal of the damaged end of the thighbone and replacing it with an artificial ball and socket joint made of metal alloys, such as cobalt chrome.

Knee Replacement Surgery: Knee replacement surgery replaces damaged parts of your knee with plastic and metal implants. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to relieve knee pain caused by arthritis while maintaining mobility and function in your knee.

Total Knee Replacement: Total knee replacement is an option for patients who have severe pain from arthritis in their knees that limits their ability to perform daily activities such as walking and climbing stairs. Patients who are candidates for total knee replacement need to have both knees replaced at the same time.

Partial Knee Replacement: Partial knee replacement is an option for patients who have a limited amount of cartilage damage in one part of their knee but not enough damage to require total knee replacement. what are the benefits of orthopedic surgery?

As we age our bones become more brittle and our joints start to wear out faster than they should. If you have chronic joint pain that doesn’t respond to conservative treatments like exercise or physical therapy then it’s time to talk with an orthopedic surgeon about whether or not you might benefit from surgery.

3. Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the restoration, reconstruction, and/or alteration of the human body. Plastic surgery is the branch of medicine that deals with the restoration, reconstruction and/or alteration of the form and function of the body. The first operations were designed to correct defects in shape, such as cleft palate. In the 1950s, surgeons began performing cosmetic surgery. In 1960s, surgical techniques were developed to re-shape noses, ears, breasts and other body parts. As a result of this development, cosmetic surgery became more popular.

It can be performed to:

  • Improve a deformity arising from birth or injury.
  • To improve the symmetry of one side of the body relative to the other.
  • To treat disease or illness that causes loss of skin elasticity.
  • To change one’s physical appearance for nonmedical reasons.

Plastic surgery is a key component of modern medicine, as it can help patients recover from trauma or disease and return to a normal life. It can also provide them with a sense of self-confidence that might otherwise be unattainable through other means. However, there are some risks involved with undergoing plastic surgery; these include scarring, infection, and other complications that can occur during or after the procedure. The best way to reduce these risks is by seeking out a qualified surgeon who has experience performing your particular type of procedure.

There are a number of factors that can contribute to the high cost of plastic surgery. First, the procedures themselves are often complex and require a great deal of time and skill to perform. Additionally, the materials used in many plastic surgery procedures are also typically very expensive. Finally, the recovery process following surgery can also be quite costly, as patients may need to stay in the hospital for several days or even weeks.

4. Colon Surgery

Colon surgery is a procedure that involves the removal of the colon. It may be performed either open or laparoscopically, depending on the severity of the condition and your doctor’s preference.

When you have colon surgery, your doctor will remove any portions of your large intestine that are diseased or damaged. The diseased portions will then be discarded and new tissue will be inserted in its place. This may include a temporary colostomy bag if necessary to allow time for healing before closing up your intestines again. The colon is a part of the digestive system that absorbs water and nutrients from food, stores waste, and helps move that waste out of your body. Colon surgery is often performed to treat diseases like cancer or diverticulitis.

You may want to consider having colon surgery if you suffer from severe constipation and discomfort from impacted stool that has built up around your rectum due to blockages in your digestive system. Colon surgery can also treat cancers in this area of the body as well as diverticular diseases such as diverticulitis or diverticulosis. In some cases, colon surgeries can be used for weight loss procedures as well by removing some portion of the large intestine that no longer serves any purpose once you lose enough weight to reduce stress on those areas.

Colon surgery can be performed through two different procedures: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. In an open procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in your abdomen to reach the colon. In a laparoscopic procedure, several small incisions are made in your abdomen and small tools are inserted through them to perform the operation.

After surgery, you will likely need to stay in the hospital for at least a few days while you recover from the procedure and allow any infection to heal. You may also need additional treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy following your surgery if you have cancer.

5. Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery is a surgical subspecialty that deals with the surgical treatment of diseases, conditions and injuries involving the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are protected by the skull and vertebrae respectively. Major trauma resulting in significant intracranial injury is a medical emergency that requires urgent neurosurgical intervention. Intracranial tumors are another common reason for neurosurgery.

Neurosurgery is a surgical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases involving the central and peripheral nervous systems, primarily focusing on disorders of the brain and spine such as tumors; vascular malformations; infections such as meningitis; degenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease; epilepsy; tumors such as acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma), glioblastoma multiforme and pituitary adenoma.

The practice of neurosurgery requires a great deal of skill and training. The procedure may be performed by a neurosurgeon or a neurosurgical team. A neurosurgeon must be able to recognize when surgery is necessary and have the skills to perform it safely while maintaining minimal risk to the patient.

Neurosurgery is a highly specialized field of medicine that requires extensive training and expertise. The diagnosis and treatment of these conditions can be complex and extremely demanding. As a result, the majority of neurosurgeons are board certified physicians who have completed an additional 3 to 7 years of rigorous training after medical school.

6. Oncology Surgery

Oncology surgery is the surgical treatment of cancer. It is the most common form of surgery performed in patients with cancer and is essential to the management of many types of cancer. Oncologists perform over 90% of all operations on patients with cancer. Oncologists specialize in treating tumors and other cancers, as well as providing palliative care for people with terminal illnesses. Oncologists usually work alongside other medical professionals including surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, and oncology nurses. They may also work with therapists and pharmacists.

The majority of oncologic surgeries are performed with a minimally invasive approach that may involve laparoscopic techniques, robots or endoscopes. These procedures allow surgeons to more precisely remove tumors while preserving as much healthy tissue as possible. The field of oncologic surgery has benefited from advances in computer-assisted technologies that allow surgeons to plan complex operations before they begin and make real-time decisions during procedures based on live video feedback from cameras inside the patient’s body.

Oncology surgeons perform many types of operations on patients with cancer. These include operations to remove tumors or lymph nodes and operations to remove or treat cancerous growths such as breast cancers and prostate cancers.

Oncologic surgeons may also perform reconstructive surgery following an amputation due to cancer or other factors, such as trauma or infection. This type of surgery typically involves replacing lost tissue with either autologous (using a patient’s own tissues) or allogeneic (using tissues from another donor) grafts or flaps made up of muscle, fat and skin taken from other parts of the body.

7. Ophthalmology Surgery

Ophthalmology surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Ophthalmologists perform surgery to repair or restore sight, manage eye disease, and help people prevent vision loss. The main concern in ophthalmology surgery is to restore vision, but it also includes treatment for eye diseases and injuries, including cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and more. Ophthalmology surgeons are specially trained doctors who have completed medical school and residency training in general surgery. They must also complete additional training specific to ophthalmology before they can practice as an ophthalmologist.

The most common procedures include cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, retinal detachment surgery, and laser vision correction surgery. They can also provide their patients with contact lenses or glasses if needed. Other specialists in this field include optometrists and opticians. An optometrist is someone who specializes in eye health through visual assessment, diagnosis and management of vision problems. An optician provides eyeglasses to people after assessing their vision needs. An ophthalmic assistant assists ophthalmologists during procedures and surgeries performed on patients’ eyes.

Laser technology has become an important part of modern ophthalmic surgery. Lasers are used for diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease in the eye. They have many advantages over conventional surgical instruments: they cause less pain; reduce bleeding; allow precise cutting of tissue; allow surgeons to perform operations through tiny incisions; and heal tissue faster than with conventional surgery.

8. Dental Surgery

Dental surgery is a procedure performed by a dentist to repair or replace parts of the teeth. This may include the removal of decay, the restoration of broken or cracked teeth, and the placement of crowns (caps) on teeth. Any type of procedure that requires the removal or replacement of teeth can be treated with dental surgery. The most common types of dental surgery are:

• Restorative Dental Surgery: This type of procedure is used to repair damaged or missing teeth and restore them to their original shape, strength and function. It can also be used in cases where there isn’t enough room for a tooth implant. The most common restorative procedures are crowns, implants and bridges.

• Cosmetic Dental Surgery: Cosmetic procedures are designed to improve the overall appearance of your smile through changes in color and shape, or even size! Cosmetic dentistry can address any number of issues such as crooked or discolored teeth, gaps between teeth, uneven bite patterns and more!

Dental surgery can also be used to treat oral cancers and tumors, as well as other oral diseases.

There are several benefits to undergoing dental surgery:

  • Eliminating pain
  • Improving your smile
  • Preventing future health issues
  • There are also several risks associated with dental surgery:
  • Bleeding or infection at the site of the incision
  • Incorrectly fitting dentures causing discomfort or loss of function
  • Infection in surrounding structures (such as gum disease) spreading into the bloodstream through an open wound  

Dental surgery can be performed in a number of ways, depending on the severity of your condition. Your dentist will discuss the best course of action for your specific case and what you can expect during recovery.

9. Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery is a procedure that helps obese people lose weight. It’s performed by removing part of the stomach or by placing a band around the upper portion of the stomach. This procedure is used in people who are at least 100 pounds overweight and have tried other methods to lose weight without success.

It’s typically done to help with conditions like diabetes, high cholesterol, and heart disease. There are two main types of bariatric surgery: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure and gastric sleeve surgery. Both surgeries involve removing part of the stomach, which makes you feel full faster and eat less.

The sleeve gastrectomy option is newer than the bypass surgery. It’s also simpler to do and has a lower risk of complications like heart attack or stroke. But it doesn’t work as well in some people, so it’s best to go over all your options with your doctor before deciding on one type over is done by removing part of the stomach or by bypassing a section of the intestine

Bariatric surgery is a procedure that removes a large portion of the stomach, making it much smaller. This reduces the amount of food you can eat at one time and also slows down your digestion so that you feel full faster. The surgery is performed using general anesthesia and is done laparoscopically, which means there are small incisions made in the abdomen to allow for access to the stomach, but no large incisions are necessary.

It’s important to note that bariatric surgery is not a cure for obesity. It’s a tool used in conjunction with other lifestyle changes (like diet and exercise) to help people lose weight and maintain their weight loss.

10.  Appendectomy

Appendectomy is a procedure that removes the appendix. The appendix is a small tube-shaped pouch attached to the large intestine. Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. This can cause pain and tenderness around the belly button. Appendicitis is a painful condition that can be caused by inflammation of the appendix, a worm-like structure attached to the large intestine. The appendix has no known function, and its removal is often recommended for people with recurrent episodes of appendicitis. The most common symptom of appendicitis is lower abdominal pain that gets worse over time.

A doctor will check for signs of appendicitis by taking a medical history, examining you, and doing an ultrasound or CT scan. If your doctor thinks you have appendicitis, they may recommend an appendectomy to remove your appendix before it ruptures and causes infection in your body. Appendicitis is one of the most common reasons for an emergency appendectomy. Appendicitis is a medical emergency and should be treated quickly. If you think you may have appendicitis, it’s important to see your doctor right away.

The appendectomy is done through an incision in your lower right abdomen. The surgeon removes your appendix and closes the incision with stitches. Appendectomies are typically done as an outpatient procedure and are generally safe with few complications.

Laparoscopic appendectomy involves making small cuts in your abdomen and inserting a camera into these cuts to see inside your abdomen. The camera sends images to a video monitor, which helps the surgeon see what’s going on inside your abdomen without having to make bigger cuts in your skin.

Open appendectomy involves making larger cuts in your abdomen and removing the appendix through those cuts.

11. Cesarean section

Cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which the baby is delivered through an incision in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. The procedure is performed when other methods of delivery, such as vaginal birth, are not possible because the baby cannot fit through the birth canal, or when vaginal birth would be too dangerous for the mother or child. It is also known as cesarean birth, caesarean delivery, or caesarean birth. A cesarean section is also known as a C-section, and it’s used to deliver babies when there are complications with the pregnancy or birth of a child.

A Cesarean section is performed when a vaginal birth would be potentially dangerous for both the mother and child. In some cases, it’s also performed if there are complications with the pregnancy or if the baby is too large to fit through the birth canal (the opening from the vagina to the cervix).

In this procedure, your doctor makes an incision in your lower abdomen and uterus. The surgeon then removes your baby through this incision and delivers him or her through your abdominal wall. Afterward, sutures (stitches) are placed to close up your incision site.

A cesarean section can be scheduled or unplanned. Scheduled cesareans are done for medical reasons, and unplanned cesareans are done for emergency reasons. It is not mandatory for all mothers to have this surgery. If you do decide to have a Cesarean, it will be performed by a team of trained medical professionals that include an obstetrician, anesthesiologist, pediatrician and nurses.

12. Hysterectomy 

Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the uterus from a woman, either partially or entirely. It is also known as “hysteron” or “womb removal.” Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the uterus and sometimes other surrounding reproductive organs. A hysterectomy is typically performed to treat problems associated with the female reproductive system, such as fibroids and uterine prolapse. A hysterectomy can be performed using either an open surgery or a minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery (MIS). Hysterectomy will result in permanent infertility and cannot be reversed.

Hysterectomy is usually performed to treat uterine bleeding, cancer, or endometriosis. It can be performed through an abdominal incision (laparotomy), vaginal incision (vaginal hysterectomy), or through the abdominal muscles using a scope (laparoscopy). The type of hysterectomy performed depends on the reason for surgery and a woman’s preferences.

A hysterectomy can result in permanent infertility if both ovaries are removed; however, if only one ovary is removed, a woman may still be able to become pregnant using assisted reproductive technology like in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are two types of hysterectomies: abdominal and vaginal. In an abdominal hysterectomy, your doctor makes an incision through your lower abdomen and removes your uterus through the opening in your abdomen. A vaginal hysterectomy is done through the vagina instead of through an incision in your abdomen. This type of procedure may be easier on you physically because there is less recovery time than with an abdominal surgery, but it does require more time for healing and recovery before you can return to work or other activities.

13. Mastectomy 

Mastectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of a breast. Mastectomy may be performed to treat cancer, such as invasive ductal carcinoma or lobular carcinoma. There are different types of mastectomy that can be performed depending on the size and location of the tumor.

A radical mastectomy removes the entire breast, including tissue under the skin and lymph nodes in the armpit. A modified radical mastectomy removes only some of the breast tissue, but still includes lymph nodes in the armpit. A simple or partial mastectomy removes only one part of the breast and does not involve lymph nodes.

Aside from removing cancerous cells, mastectomy may also be performed for cosmetic reasons or to prevent cancer from returning. A mastectomy can be performed to remove a cancerous mass, or as a preventive measure for women at high risk for breast cancer. In the latter case, the surgery is often referred to as prophylactic or risk-reducing mastectomy.

Mastectomy may also be performed on men, although it’s not common. The surgeon removes all of the breast tissue and some of the chest muscles. The nipple, areola and some of the surrounding skin are also removed. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, so you will not feel any pain during the operation. The surgery may be followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy as part of your treatment plan.

14. Cholecystectomy 

Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the gallbladder. The surgery is often done to treat gallstones or to prevent them. It may also be used to treat inflammation of the gallbladder, called cholecystitis.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ that sits on top of the liver. It’s responsible for storing bile produced by the liver, which helps to break down fats in food. If you have your gallbladder removed, you’ll still be able to digest foods containing fat just fine—but you’ll no longer be able to store extra bile in it.

In order to perform a cholecystectomy, doctors will make an incision (a cut) in your abdomen and remove your gallbladder through this opening. The surgery itself typically lasts about 30 minutes and can be performed either with general anesthesia or local anesthesia (where you’ll be awake but will not feel pain). It’s important to note that most people are able to go home the same day as their operation.

After surgery, most people experience pain in their upper abdomen and have some difficulty eating solid foods for a few weeks afterward. In some cases, there may also be some discomfort when they cough or sneeze because of stitches used during the procedure; however, these usually dissolve within two weeks of surgery so there should be no more discomfort after this time period has passed.

You should discuss your options with your physician prior to undergoing any type of cholecystectomy procedure so that both parties are clear about what types of risks.

15. Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the surgical treatment of diseases and disorders of the vascular system. Vascular surgery is a form of surgical repair that involves the use of grafts to replace or repair damaged blood vessels. It is often used in the treatment of vascular disease, which includes conditions such as atherosclerosis, Buerger’s disease and Raynaud’s phenomenon.

The most common reason for vascular surgery is atherosclerosis, which occurs when plaque builds up inside an artery wall. This buildup can cause blockages and restrict blood flow, which can lead to serious problems such as stroke or heart attack if left untreated. Vascular surgery may be performed to treat symptoms such as pain, numbness and loss of function. It may also be used to prevent further complications such as stroke, heart attack or aneurysm.

The procedure may also be used to improve blood supply to an organ or limb by repairing an artery or vein that has been blocked by a clot. This can help reduce pain and swelling during recovery from other surgeries such as knee replacement surgery.

A doctor who specializes in vascular surgery is called a vascular surgeon. They may perform procedures such as aneurysm repair, arterial bypass grafting, carotid artery stenting, coronary artery bypass grafting, dialysis access surgery, hemodialysis access surgery, peripheral arterial disease management and treatment, vein grafts and saphenous vein harvesting.


Surgery is a major decision that every person must make for themselves. It is an important decision because surgery can be dangerous and can have lifelong consequences. Surgery is a treatment for a disease or condition that cannot be treated in any other way. Some surgeries are done to correct problems that have occurred inside your body, like an injury or disease. Other surgeries are done to treat problems on the outside of your body, like skin conditions or cancerous tumors. Surgery can be used to either remove or repair a damaged organ or tissue.

In conclusion, there are many different kinds of surgeries. We have listed fifteen common types of surgeries, but there are many more than that. Surgery is one of the most important medical procedures, and it’s important to know what kind of surgery you’re getting into. Surgery can be life-changing, so take time to research what kind of surgery you need before going under the knife.

It’s not every day you get to go under the knife. But when it’s time, you want to be as prepared as possible. That’s where this list comes in. We’ve broken down 15 common types of surgeries, so you know what to expect before and after going under the knife.

Whether you’re getting a routine checkup or having something more serious done, this list is your one-stop shop for all things surgery related.


1. What are the different types of surgeries?

There are many different types of surgeries, but some of the most common include:

  • Cesarean section (C-section): A surgery in which the baby is delivered through an incision in the mother’s abdomen.
  • Abdominal surgery: A surgery in which an incision is made in the abdomen in order to access the abdominal organs.
  • Bariatric surgery: A surgery that is performed on the stomach and/or intestines in order to help with weight loss.

2. What are the risks of surgery?

The risks of surgery vary depending on the type of surgery. Some common risks include infection, bleeding, and blood clots.

3. What are the complications of surgery?

The complications of surgery vary depending on the type of surgery. Some common complications include infection, bleeding, and blood clots.

4. What are the side effects of surgery?

The side effects of surgery vary depending on the type of surgery. Some common side effects include pain, swelling, and bruising.

5. What are the risks of anesthesia?

The risks of anesthesia vary depending on the type of anesthesia used. Some common risks include allergic reactions, nausea, and vomiting.

6. Why might someone need surgery?

There are many reasons why someone might need surgery. Some common reasons include:

  • To remove a cancerous tumor
  • To repair a damaged organ
  • To correct a birth defect
  • To remove an organ that is no longer functioning properly

7. How is surgery performed?

Surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia, which means that the patient is put into a state of unconsciousness. Once the patient is unconscious, the surgeon will make an incision and then proceed to repair or remove the affected area.

8. What should I expect before and after surgery?

Before surgery, you will likely meet with your surgeon to discuss the details of the procedure. You will also be given specific instructions on what to do and not do in the days leading up to surgery. After surgery, you can expect to spend some time in the hospital recovering. You may also be given pain medication and instructions on how to care for your incision.

9. How much does surgery cost?

The cost of surgery will vary depending on the type of surgery, the location of the surgery, and the surgeon.

10. Is surgery covered by insurance?

Most insurance plans will cover at least a portion of the cost of surgery. However, you should check with your insurance provider to see what your specific coverage is.

11. How do I choose a surgeon?

When choosing a surgeon, it is important to consider their experience, training, and reviews from previous patients. You can ask your primary care doctor for recommendations or search for surgeons online.

12. What are the different types of anesthesia?

There are different types of anesthesia, but the most common are general anesthesia (which puts you to sleep) and local anesthesia (which numbs the area).

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